Freedom, democracy, equality, justice, security and joint and several liability are fundamental values in Finnish society. Freedom means freedom of movement, speech, expression, and freedom to gather. Democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state usually through elected representatives. Democracy - literally translated “rule by the people” - means that the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation or to choose governing officials to do so.
Equality means treating people equally despite their gender, ethnicity, class, religion, or disability. According to Finnish law people are equal, and equality is a basic human right. Finland is one of the world's leading countries in fostering equality. Finland was the first country in the world to grant women full political rights. Equality is a social innovation that has brought renewal and prosperity to society when the contribution of both women and men has been available. The discussion about gender equality has become more diverse, the themes have become the dismantling of gender stereotypes and the analysis of femininity and masculinity. The models and roles of women and men have diversified. From the concept of the bipolarity of gender, we have moved forward to the concept of the multiplicity of gender. In Finland, the gender-neutral marriage law entered into force on March 1, 2017. The new law also opens the right to adoption to same-sex couples. The
equality debate has been extended to early childhood education and the school world. However, equality is a broad concept that includes acknowledging other types of discriminations as well.
Justice, in turn, is the base of Finnish constitutional state. The authority here can be trusted. Compared to other countries, Finland is also quite secure state to live in. Crime rate is low, and people are mostly trustworthy.
Joint and several liability means taking common care of other people around you and especially taking care of the people that are in weaker positions. Finnish society is built on the welfare state model that aims to offer every citizen the best possible physical, psychical, and social condition and the possibilities to influence in their own lives. Welfare state balances the position of the strong and the weak and narrows the differences in
welfare. Welfare state considers the common good, which is also a necessary condition for individual well-being and success. According to the Finnish constitution, everyone has the right to a basic income during unemployment, illness, incapacity, and old age. This is taken care of by the social security system. In addition, for example, the public education here is free and even colleges/universities are almost free (costs only 100-200€ per year). Besides free schooling, the welfare state also offers public health care, and they both are
funded by taxes. Finnish society is explained in more detail in the 5 th chapter.